Bitcoin: a new journey – Glossary

Bitcoin Glossary

For a couple of years now I have been interested in bitcoin and cryptocurrencies and have embarked on a road of educating myself with it.  On of the first stumbling blocks is to get used to terms used and Bitcoin speak.  I am currently reading Mastering Bitcoin from Andreas Antonopoulos and found exactly what I need and are reporducing[1] it here for easy reference.


A bitcoin address looks like 1DSrfJdB2AnWaFNgSbv3MZC2m74996JafV. It consists of
a string of letters and numbers starting with a “1” (number one). Just like you ask
others to send an email to your email address, you would ask others to send you
bitcoin to your bitcoin address.


Bitcoin Improvement Proposals. A set of proposals that members of the bitcoin
community have submitted to improve bitcoin. For example, BIP0021 is a proposal
to improve the bitcoin uniform resource identifier (URI) scheme.


The name of the currency unit (the coin), the network, and the software.


A grouping of transactions, marked with a timestamp, and a fingerprint of the
previous block. The block header is hashed to produce a proof of work, thereby
validating the transactions. Valid blocks are added to the main blockchain by network


A list of validated blocks, each linking to its predecessor all the way to the genesis block.


Once a transaction is included in a block, it has one confirmation. As soon as
another block is mined on the same blockchain, the transaction has two confirmations,
and so on. Six or more confirmations is considered sufficient proof that a
transaction cannot be reversed.


A network-wide setting that controls how much computation is required to produce
a proof of work.

difficulty target

A difficulty at which all the computation in the network will find blocks approximately
every 10 minutes.

difficulty retargeting

A network-wide recalculation of the difficulty that occurs once every 2,106 blocks
and considers the hashing power of the previous 2,106 blocks.


The sender of a transaction often includes a fee to the network for processing the
requested transaction. Most transactions require a minimum fee of 0.5 mBTC.


A digital fingerprint of some binary input.

genesis block

The first block in the blockchain, used to initialize the cryptocurrency.


A network node that finds valid proof of work for new blocks, by repeated hashing.


A peer-to-peer network that propagates transactions and blocks to every bitcoin
node on the network.


A piece of data that requires significant computation to find. In bitcoin, miners
must find a numeric solution to the SHA256 algorithm that meets a network-wide
target, the difficulty target.


An amount included in each new block as a reward by the network to the miner
who found the Proof-Of-Work solution. It is currently 25BTC per block.

secret key (aka private key)

The secret number that unlocks bitcoins sent to the corresponding address. A secret
key looks like 5J76sF8L5jTtzE96r66Sf8cka9y44wdpJjMwCxR3tzLh3ibVPxh.


In simple terms, a transfer of bitcoins from one address to another. More precisely,
a transaction is a signed data structure expressing a transfer of value. Transactions
are transmitted over the bitcoin network, collected by miners, and included into
blocks, made permanent on the blockchain.


Software that holds all your bitcoin addresses and secret keys. Use it to send, receive,
and store your bitcoin.

[1] – Reproducing from “Mastering Bitcoin by Andreas M. Antonopoulos (O’Reilly). Copyright 2015 Andreas M. Antonopoulos, 978-1-449-37404-4.”

PHP upgrade on Dreamhost

Short post to verify and check that all went correctly in upgrading PHP from version 5.5 to PHP version 5.6.

All looks fine and all seem to be working, please comment if you see anything weird.

Google Pixel and Pixel-XL, but will we get it in South Africa?

google pixel pixel-xl south africaOn 4 October, Google announced their new Google branded cellphone called Google Pixel and Google Pixel-XL.  The hardware for these phones are made by HTC.  HTC has always made good phones and I like the build quality of their phones but they are not that good at marketing so the relationship with Google will be a good one.

The question now arises whether we will be seeing this phone in South Africa.  The only way to get it in South Africa is either via one of the mobile operators since buying it from the Google Play Store in South Africa is not an option.

I have looked around on some of the online stores in South Africa but have not come across anywhere where it can be pre-ordered.

As an Android user and somebody that will not switch to iPhone, I would like to get either the Pixel or preferable the Pixel-XL since I live on my phone and like the bigger one.  Also I am a avid hiker, see my Hiking site, both the Pixel and Pixel-XL has great cameras and would come in very handy when hiking.


The 3 colors that will be available for the Google Pixel and Pixel-XL phones.  I am leaning toward the blue one, lets have a bit of color in our lives.

Would love to hear what you think so leave a comment below.

Google Duo is available in South Africa

Google Duo is available in South AfricaUp until today, Google Duo was not available in South Africa from the Google Play store. The only way to install it was to side load the APK which you had to download from somewhere.  What you could do was to pre-register on the Google Play store to be informed when it will be available for installation.  This morning (19 August 2016) I woke up with a notification that Google Duo is available in South Africa and can be installed.

Head over to the Google Play store and install now.

For those that do not know what Google Duo is, it is a Video calling app that is basically the same as Apple Facetime on the iPhone except that Google Duo is cross platform so you can chat with your buddies that have both Android and iPhones.

So let me know in the comments below what you think about it.

Receive and Manage International payments with Payoneer

International payments with PayoneerYou are a freelancer or a business that needs to receive payments from anywhere in the world no matter where you are.  As business is more global than ever, clients and partners can be based anywhere. This creates numerous challenges dealing with transactions abroad. Whether you’re a freelance web designer, web developer, blogger, or making big bucks in e-commerce, you need a better way to send and receive funds. You also need to be able to easily transfer that payments to your own bank account in your local country and your local currency. Look no further than Payoneer to receive and manage international payments.

Need a better payment solution?

Do you have reservations about paying people abroad? Of course you do—unless you’re OK with it.  And if you are, please hurry up and wire $10,000 to my Payoneer bank account (yes you will receive your own bank account) because I been trying to track you down so you can claim your $10,000,000 inheritance. Thanks!

When it comes to freelancing on the web, you really need to consider serious matters like compliance with local laws, taxation, payment verification, and security of your account. And that’s just for a single payment. Complex stuff if you need to do each step one at a time.

Not only that, but certain companies often charge high fees to transfer funds and take a cut from exchanging currency. Then, these companies can make you wait and wait to confirm you’ve paid the recipient or got paid yourself. With Payoneer you can easily receive and manage international payments.

Web professionals deserve better.

How do I start to receive and manage international payments?

This  tip is a payment solution geared towards freelancing professionals called Payoneer. Millions of freelancers are using this to manage payments easier than ever before. There’s no need to worry about high fees, missing payments, or long delays. Payments can be sent to recipients, who can have the money loaded into their local bank account, debit card, or e-wallet. You can also get paid this way too. Simple and easy enough. It’s used in over 200 countries, and provides easy currency transactions. And the best part: receiving or sending payments to another Payoneer user is free! The nice folks at Payoneer have provided a special signup for $25 in free credit for my readers.

When you have signed up the also apply for you free Payoneer issued Mastercard Debit card which you can use at any establishment around the world that accepts Mastercard Debit cards and even draw cash from most ATM’s.

I love helping you grow your online dreams and are happy to support you with tools for a flexible and profitable online business.

receive and manage international payments


How-to: Ubuntu 16.04 LTS minidlna fixes after upgrade from Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS minidlna
This is how I solved the problem with Ubuntu 16.04 LTS minidlna after upgrading from Ubuntu 14.04 LTS to Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.

MiniDLNA is a lightweight DLNA/UPnP media server. The MiniDNLA daemon serves media files (music, pictures, and video) to clients on a network.

My setup before the upgrade was as follows:

  • Ubuntu 14.04 LTS
  • Media files on both the first disk but also spread across various other disks.

The main issue I had was that although the config file at /etc/minidlna.conf was read, it did not process the media files that was on disk other than the first disk. By default the daemon run under the USER minidlna and for some reason this user did not have permission to read the media files on the other disks. I changed the USER variable in the .conf file but it did not take either, not sure why.

How to fix

So I diged a bit deeper and found that the USER is also specified in the /etc/init.d/minidlna executable file. So all I did was changed the USER and GROUP variable to root in the /etc/init.d/minidlna file as indicated below.

I restarted the daemon by executing sudo /etc/init.d/minidlna force-reload and voila everything was fine and all my media files available to watch from any device on my network.

Hope this is helpful.

All in One Domain name registration and WordPress hosting.

all in one domain nameNeed a new all in one domain name, well I am your man. Now you might ask why you should use me for you domain requirements. I know that you can do it yourself or get some other company to do it for you but they will make you jump through some hoops and have some automated process doing it for you.  With me everything is manually done by me, I will do the following for you:

  • Register your domain name on one of my Name Servers, no need for you to go find one. You just pick a domain name and on of the extensions from the list below.
  • I will setup your hosting on one of my servers with a major hosting provider.  You have unlimited bandwidth available for your website.
  • I will install basic WordPress site for you and supply you with the login details so you can manage you own WordPress site.
  • I will setup as many email addresses as you want as part of the setup. These can either be POP3/IMAP email addresses or email addresses that autoforwards to any email address you want.
  • As and when you need more email addresses or delete existing ones, I will do that for you during the course of the year at no additional cost.
  • I will ensure that your domain name and hosting is renewed in time every year.  You just pay the renewal fees as listed below. I will invoice you with the required amount to pay well in advance.

So what do I need to do to get you all in one domain name:

  • You need to tell me the all in one domain name you want.  You can send me your requested domain name by competing this contact form.
  • I will check whether the domain name is available.  If so then I will issue you with an invoice of the required amount to pay for the first year of registration.  Payment can be made by any of the following:
    • Electronic Funds Transfer into my bank account, banking details will be on the invoice.
    • VISA or Mastercard Credit card payment via Payoneer, instruction will be on the invoice.
    • Payment via Snapscan in South Africa, QR code will be on the invoice.
  • When payment has been received and confirmed then I will setup WordPress hosting and any email addresses you might need within 24 hours.

Domain list and costs:

TLD First Year (ZAR) First Year (USD) Second Year Onwards (ZAR) Second Year Onwards (USD) R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
xyz R289,00 $21,00 R239,00 $17,40
joburg R350,00 $25,40 R300,00 $21,80
durban R350,00 $25,40 R300,00 $21,80
capetown R350,00 $25,40 R300,00 $21,80
com R277,00 $20,10 R227,00 $16,50
net R277,00 $20,10 R227,00 $16,50
org R277,00 $20,10 R227,00 $16,50 R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70 R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70 R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
co R590,00 $42,80 R540,00 $39,20 R409,00 $29,70 R359,00 $26,10
tv R1 009,00 $73,20 R959,00 $69,50
de R229,00 $16,60 R179,00 $13,00
eu R385,00 $27,90 R335,00 $24,30
me R649,00 $47,10 R599,00 $43,50
us R229,00 $16,60 R179,00 $13,00
asia R710,00 $51,50 R660,00 $47,90
mobi R289,00 $21,00 R239,00 $17,40
xxx R2 149,00 $155,80 R2 099,00 $152,20
travel R2 564,00 $185,80 R2 514,00 $182,20
info R241,00 $17,50 R191,00 $13,90
in R433,00 $31,40 R383,00 $27,80
biz R289,00 $21,00 R239,00 $17,40 R1 069,00 $77,50 R1 019,00 $73,90 R950,00 $68,90 R900,00 $65,30
name R277,00 $20,10 R227,00 $16,50
pw R241,00 $17,50 R191,00 $13,90
bar R1 430,00 $103,70 R1 380,00 $100,00
mu R2 150,00 $155,80 R2 100,00 $152,20
bz R650,00 $47,20 R600,00 $43,50
cash R529,00 $38,40 R479,00 $34,80 R470,00 $34,10 R420,00 $30,50 R470,00 $34,10 R420,00 $30,50 R470,00 $34,10 R420,00 $30,50 R830,00 $60,20 R780,00 $56,60
ink R650,00 $47,20 R600,00 $43,50
rest R830,00 $60,20 R780,00 $56,60 R830,00 $60,20 R780,00 $56,60 R830,00 $60,20 R780,00 $56,60 R590,00 $42,80 R540,00 $39,20
wiki R590,00 $42,80 R540,00 $39,20
host R1 670,00 $121,10 R1 620,00 $117,40
website R554,00 $40,20 R504,00 $36,60
site R674,00 $48,90 R624,00 $45,30
party R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
design R950,00 $68,90 R900,00 $65,30
fans R1 310,00 $95,00 R1 260,00 $91,40
feedback R590,00 $42,80 R540,00 $39,20
love R590,00 $42,80 R540,00 $39,20
rent R1 310,00 $95,00 R1 260,00 $91,40
space R289,00 $21,00 R239,00 $17,40
tech R950,00 $68,90 R900,00 $65,30
bid R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
trade R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
webcam R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
cricket R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
science R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
review R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
faith R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
accountant R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70
loan R155,00 $11,30 R105,00 $7,70

Go ahead, what do you have to loose, contact me and get your new all in one domain name and hosting today.

Ever wondered what Elon Musk is reading at the moment

In an interview by Tom Randall from Bloomberg, Elon Musk was asked what he was reading at the moment and as can be expected from Elon it was something out of the ordinary,

It is a book called Twelve Against the Gods by William Bolitho which was first published in 1929.

Twelve Against the Gods: The Story of Adventure is an obscure, out-of-print treatise by William Bolitho, published in 1929. Bolitho, a South African journalist and friend of Ernest Hemingway, wrote about 12 famous “adventurers”—from Alexander the Great to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson—who fought against the conventions of their times, for better or for worse.

The book is currently out-of-print and out of stock but you can ask Amazon to email you when stock is available, just click the box

If you interested in reading more about the man himself, then head over and get his autobiography.

Kickstarter products on Amazon

Ever wanted to shop on Amazon for all the amazing products that gets crowd funded by Kickstarter.  Your wait is over so head over to Amazon and join the community and buy your desired product.

Elon Musk Autobiography review – the man behind Tesla and SpaceX

As an South African, I follow what Elon Musk is up to and I have just read the Autobiography of Elon Musk that was written by Ashlee Vance and I can highly recommend the book to anybody, whether you a South African, whether you in business or just the ordinary man on the street.  Link below to buy the book on Amazon.

See what The New York Times has to say:

Ashlee Vance, in his new biography of the celebrity industrialist Elon Musk, delivers a similar notion of the deflating American soul. An early Facebook engineer tells Mr. Vance, “The best minds of my generation are thinking about how to make people click ads.” The author quotes the venture capitalist Peter Thiel: “We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters.”

If Silicon Valley was holding out for a hero after Steve Jobs’s death, a disrupter in chief, it has found a brawny one in Mr. Musk. This South African-born entrepreneur, inventor and engineer is the animating force behind companies (Tesla, SpaceX, SolarCity) that have made startling advances in non-indoor-cat arenas: electric cars, space exploration and solar energy. He is all of 43.

Mr. Musk is about as close as we have, circa 2015, to early industrial titans like Henry Ford, Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller. Along with his swagger, he totes surprise, style and wit.

Read the rest of the review here.

Excerpt from the inside cover of the book:

There are few industrialists in history who could match Elon Musk’s relentless drive and ingenious vision. A modern alloy of Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, Howard Hughes, and Steve Jobs, Musk is the man behind PayPal, Tesla Motors, SpaceX, and SolarCity, each of which has sent shock waves throughout American business and industry. More than any other executive today, Musk has dedicated his energies and his own vast fortune to inventing a future that is as rich and far-reaching as a science fiction fantasy.

In this lively, investigative account, veteran technology journalist Ashlee Vance offers an unprecedented look into the remarkable life and times of Silicon Valley’s most audacious businessman. Written with exclusive access to Musk, his family, and his friends, the book traces his journey from his difficult upbringing in South Africa to his ascent to the pinnacle of the global business world. Vance spent more than fifty hours in conversation with Musk and inter- viewed close to three hundred people to tell the tumultuous stories of Musk’s world-changing companies and to paint a portrait of a complex man who has renewed American industry and sparked new levels of innovation–all while making plenty of enemies along the way.

In 1992, Elon Musk arrived in the United States as a ferociously driven immigrant bent on realizing his wildest dreams. Since then, Musk’s roller-coaster life has brought him grave disappointments alongside massive successes. After being forced out of PayPal, fending off a life-threatening case of malaria, and dealing with the death of his infant son, Musk abandoned Silicon Valley for Los Angeles. He spent the next few years baffling his friends by blowing his entire fortune on rocket ships and electric cars. Cut to 2012, however, and Musk had mounted one of the greatest resurrections in business history: Tesla, SpaceX, and SolarCity had enjoyed unparalleled success, and Musk’s net worth soared to more than $5 billion.

At a time when many American companies are more interested in chasing easy money than in taking bold risks on radical new technology, Musk stands out as the only businessman with enough dynamism and vision to tackle–and even revolutionize–three industries at once. Vance makes the case that Musk’s success heralds a return to the original ambition and invention that made America an economic and intellectual powerhouse. Elon Musk is a brilliant, penetrating examination of what Musk’s career means for a technology industry undergoing dramatic change and offers a taste of what could be an incredible century ahead.